Search on website

Introducing OpenAnesthesia Summaries

Mini-reviews on high-yield topics in anesthesiology, critical care, and perioperative medicine.

New Podcast Episode:
OA-SPA Ask the Expert

Dr. Melissa Coleman and OpenAnesthesia Editor Dr. Aditee Ambardekar discuss historical perspectives in anesthesia and their role in education.

Meet Our New Editorial Board

Get to know our team of content experts!


Keyword of the Day

Pulseless Vtach Rx

Read OA Summary chevron-left-black

Question of the Day

Which of the following pacemaker modes would be MOST appropriate for a patient with bradycardia from sick sinus syndrome who has coexistent persistent atrial fibrillation?

Question of the Day


Atrial fibrillation has been classified into the following types:

Paroxysmal:  AF terminates spontaneously within 7 days of onset

Persistent:  AF that continues and requires electrical or pharmacologic cardioversion

Longstanding: AF > 1 year where cardioversion is not indicated or attempted

Permanent:  AF that cannot be successfully terminated by electrical cardioversion

Pacemaker codes define the function of the device.  Position I is the pacing chamber, position II is the sensing chamber, position III is the response of the pacemaker to sensing, position IV is the rate responsive programmability, and position V (rarely reported conventionally) is the presence and action of anti-tachycardia function.  Pacemakers are typically reserved for treatment of atrial fibrillation when medications and ablation are inadequate for symptom management.  When patients have sinus node dysfunction or atrioventricular node dysfunction

with concomitant bradycardia in the setting of paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation, dual chamber pacing (DDDR) is indicated which provides rhythm and rate control.  When atrial fibrillation is considered to be permanent in the setting of atrioventricular conduction disturbances, ventricular rate responsive pacing (VVIR) is indicated for heart rate control.

OA Series Spotlight

podcast-icon-green Podcast


play-icon-2 22:33

OA-SPA Ask the Expert

Historical Perspectives in Anesthesia and Their Role in Education

Aditee Ambardekar, MD, MSEd, UT SouthwesternApril 2023