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Allergies and Anaphylaxis in Pediatric Anesthesia

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Bi-ventricular (“bi-vent”) pacing falls under the larger category of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) with the primary goal of resynchronizing both ventricles through simultaneous pacing. This can improve myocardial contractile function, reduce functional MR, and reverse cardiac remodeling associated with heart failure. The indications for bi-vent pacing have been changing regularly as more research is being done. Additionally, along with pacing the patient should also be on “guideline directed medical therapy” (GDMT) i.e. ACEI/ARB, beta-blocker, etc. A combined ICD/pacing device may also be placed as many patients receiving CRT qualify for an ICD as well.
Thus the primary shift in the recommendations has focused on a longer QRS prolongation, inclusions of additional NYHA classes, the presence of a LBBB versus another conduction delay (including RBBB). This may be due to limited patients having conduction delays other than LBBB in the studies.

From a practical perspective, patients often present to the operating room to have the biventricular pacemaker left ventricular (LV) lead placed as the lead may be difficult to insert via the transvenous approach. Normally, the left ventricular lead is placed under sedation transvenously via the coronary sinus and epicardial veins to the lateral wall of the left ventricle. When this approach is not possible, an anterior mini-thoracotomy may be used to place the LV lead.

For a patient who has a preexisting biventricular pacemaker and requires surgery, preoperative interrogation of the pacemaker is vital. These patients are mandatorily paced in both ventricles regardless of underlying native heart rhythm. Thus, any electromagnetic interference must be accounted for and the pacemaker should NOT be set to an alternative mode during surgery. For optimal cardiac function during the surgery and anesthetic, the biventricular pacing should continue.


  1. Lee A, Huffmyer J, Thiele E, et al. The Changing Face of Cystic Fibrosis: An Update for Anesthesiologists. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2022; 134(6):1245-1259. PubMed Link
  2. Williamson D, Sharma A. Cystic Fibrosis in Children: A Pediatric Anesthesiologist’s Perspective. Pediatric Anesthesia. 2022; 32(2):167-173. PubMed Link
  3. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation 2020 Patient Registry Annual Data Report. Accessed May 21, 2022. Link

Other References

  1. Chatterjee D. Cystic Fibrosis Update. Oct 2020. OpenAnesthesia Video Podcast. Link
  2. Interview with Dr. Pamela Zeitlin. Oct 2020. OpenAnesthesia Ask the Expert Podcast. Link