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Parental presence: Induction

A number of surveys indicated that most parents prefer to be present during the induction of anesthesia regardless of the child’s age.1,2 A majority of parents believe that they are of some help to their child and to the anesthesiologist during the induction process.(2) Parental presence is associated with increased parental satisfaction not only with the perioperative process but also with the overall hospital experience.(4)

An emphasis should be on what parents actually do rather than simply on their presence. Children and parents who undergo a parental preparation program were less anxious than were children whose parents did not receive a preparation program.(3)


  1. Kain Z, Caldwell-Andrews A, Blount R, et al: Parental presence during induction of anesthesia: The development of a new intervention. Anesthesiology. 2005 Dec;103(6):1130-5. PubMed Link
  2. N Braude, S A Ridley, E Sumner Parents and paediatric anaesthesia: a prospective survey of parental attitudes to their presence at induction. Ann R Coll Surg Engl: 1990, 72(1);41-4 PubMed Link
  3. I G Ryder, P M Spargo Parents in the anaesthetic room. A questionnaire survey of parents’ reactions. Anaesthesia: 1991, 46(11);977-9 PubMed Link
  4. Z N Kain, L C Mayes, S M Wang, L A Caramico, D M Krivutza, M B Hofstadter Parental presence and a sedative premedicant for children undergoing surgery: a hierarchical study. Anesthesiology: 2000, 92(4);939-46 PubMed Link