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Hemodialysis effects

Acute effects: hypotension (too much fluid removed), “dialysis disequilibrium” (rapid fluid/urea shifts resulting in cerebral edema – headache, nausea, can progress to convulsions and coma) hypercalcemia, fever, arrhythmias (due to hypokalemia, especially in patients on digoxin,) bleeding (due to heparinization.)

Chronic effects: hepatitis (B more common than C, due to frequent blood transfusions), anemia, infection/bacteremia, gastric emptying time increased.