Normal hemoglobin is 12 g/dL. Clotting factors (I, VII, VIII, IX, X, XII) are elevated, protein S (anticoagulant) is decreased, and there is acquired resistance to protein C. Pregnancy is thus a hypercoagulable state.
According to Gabbe, “There is increased nitrogen retention in pregnancy in both maternal and fetal compartments. There is an increase of approximately 0.9 kg of maternal fat-free mass by 27 weeks. There is a significant decrease in most fasting maternal amino acid concentrations in early pregnancy prior to the accretion of significant maternal or fetal tissue…there is a 15-percent increase in protein synthesis during the second trimester and a further increase in the third trimester by about 25 percent.”
Proteins in Pregnancy
- Hemoglobin: decreases to 12 g/dL
- Clotting Factors (I, VII, VIII, IX, X, XII): elevated
- Anticoagulants (S): decreased (as well as acquired resistance to protein C)
- Amino Acids: increased by the 2nd trimester