PONV: Risk factors

Female gender is the strongest patient specific predictor of PONV, followed by history of PONV or motion sickness, non-smoking status, and younger age. Anesthesia related factors include the use of volatile anesthetics, duration of anesthesia, perioperative opioid use, and use of nitrous oxide. Certain types of surgery may be associated with increasing the frequency of PONV. These include abdominal procedures, gynecological surgery, and cholecystectomies.





  1. Gan, T. J., et al. Consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 118 (1): 85 – 113. 2014.
  2. Apfel, C. C., et al. Evidence-based analysis of risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth 109 (5); 742 – 753. 2012.

Defined by:  Jake Bray, MD