Atlantoaxial instability: causes

Definition

Common causes include :

  1. Down syndrome
  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis
  3. Trauma
  4. Ankylosing spondylitis

There are many potential causes of atlantoaxial instability. They are listed below with most common ones listed in bold:

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Achondroplasia
  • Down Syndrome (occurs less frequently than atlantooccipital instability 10-20% vs 60%) (1)
  • Grisel Syndrome
  • Morquio Syndrome
  • Congenital scoliosis
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Larsen syndrome
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita
  • Chondrodysplasia punctata
  • Metatropic dysplasia (a rare syndrome that can present with AAI)
  • Kniest syndrome (also can present with AAI; a workup must be performed prior to any operative interventions)
  • Odontoid abnormalities
  • Os odontoideum
  • Ossiculum terminale
  • Third condyle
  • Hypoplasia or absence of the dens
  • Pseudoachondroplasia
  • Cartilage-hair hyperplasia
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Scott syndrome
  • Infections of the head and neck
  • Tumors
  • Trauma
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Steroid therapy

Keyword history

96%/2009

Sources