Studies in children are often limited to data on vomiting only and not nausea. The incidence of vomiting is twice as high among children as among adults, but it is rare in children younger than 2 years of age. The average incidence of PONV in children greater than 3 yo is 40%. The risk increases as children age but decreases after puberty. Risk increases more consistently with specific operations such as increased incidence in adenotonsillectomy, strabismus repair, hernia repair, orchiopexy, and penile surgery. A risk stratification by Eberhart can be used to predict the risk of PONV in the pediatric population. The risks include age greater than or equal to 3 yo, a personal or family (parents and siblings) history of PONV, strabismus surgery, and surgical time > 30 minutes. The added risk for each additional risk factor is 10%, 30%, 55%, 70%.
L H J Eberhart, G Geldner, P Kranke, A M Morin, A Schäuffelen, H Treiber, H Wulf The development and validation of a risk score to predict the probability of postoperative vomiting in pediatric patients. Anesth. Analg.: 2004, 99(6);1630-7, table of contents